The revolution of 1772, also known as the coup of gustav iii was a swedish coup detat performed by king gustav iii of sweden on august 19, 1772 to introduce absolute monarchy against the riksdag of the estates, resulting in the end of the age of libertyand the introduction of the swedish constitution of 1772. It wasnt so much stripping as asserting the reality of the situation, but it was a downward spiral that started back in the 18th century. King gustav iii stages a coup detat against the parliament in stockholm with the support of hovpartiet. Sweden was the first country to establish the office of ombudsman. Swedens constitution of 1772 took effect through a bloodless coup detat, the revolution of 1772, carried out by king gustav iii, who had become king in 1771, establishing a brief absolute. The majority of democratic countries have a written constitution which regulates how society shall be governed. However, like those constitutions, the swedish constitution of 1772 is no longer used or in effect today. This has a unique status in between constitutional and ordinary law. Under the finnish constitution, executive power is vested in the king and the government, with the king possessing only residual powers. European and middle eastern perspectives swedish research institute in istanbulayval. It dates back to 1809, created by the constitution. The estates could assemble only when summoned by him. The constitution of 1772 in finland was to remain in force until 1919. Foreign observers regarded her as the freest country in the world.
This complete constitution has been generated from excerpts of texts from the repository of the comparative constitutions project, and distributed on. In addition to the fundamental laws, sweden has a riksdag act. Jacek jedruch, constitutions, elections and legislatures of poland, 14931993, summit, nj, ejj books, 1998, isbn 0781806372. Her ideal was the swedish constitution of 1772, which she saw as a good tool for an enlightened aristocracy, and the war and the union and security act had made her a leading part of the opposition. Sweden s bloodless revolution of 1772 was legitimized by the parliament in new versions of the instrument of government in 1772 and 1789, making the king a constitutional autocrat. Gustav iii instituted the constitution of 1772, which gave himself absolute power, stripping parliament of a lot of the power and liberties it. Which country has the oldest written constitution answers. Russian empire gained finland as a result of finnish war 18081809. The authoritarian constitution of 1772 was abolished and power was returned to parliament by the new instrument of government adopted on june 6, 1809. However, like those constitutions, the swedish constitution of 1772 is no. The real reason was the avarice of three imperialistic, absolute states whose political systems completely contradicted the polish traditions of democracy, civil liberty, and selfgovernment. However, the swedish counterpart withered quickly, while the valhalla society took root in the suomenlinna swedish. Swedens bloodless coup detat of 1772 was legitimized by the riksdag of the estates in new versions of the instrument of government, swedish constitution of 1772 and the union and security act from 1789, making the king a constitutional autocrat.
The constitution of sweden the fundamental laws and the riksdag act. In 1974, why did the swedish government decide to strip. The swedish constitution consists of four fundamental laws swedish. When sweden was split in 1809, and the grand duchy of finland was created as an autonomous part of the russian empire, this constitutional autocracy was very. It came about after the succession crisis which occurred after the death of charles xii of sweden, when the monarch died childless during the great northern war, leaving two. The swedish constitution consists of four fundamental laws. The instrument of government of 1719 adopted on 21 february 1719 by the riksdag of the estates was one of the fundamental laws that made up the constitution of sweden from 1719 to 1772. It shall be realised through a representative and parliamentary polity and through local selfgovernment. State papers relating the change of the constitution of sweden. What state constitution is the oldest and in force today. Gustav, the eldest son of king adolf fredrik, was an intelligent and cultured advocate of the enlightenment. The pretext was that it was necessary to restore order in the anarchic polishlithuanian commonwealth.
In 1766 he married sofia magdalena, daughter of king frederick v of denmark. Sweden s unbloody revolution of 1772 was legitimized by the parliament in new versions of the instrument of government in 1772 and 1789, making the king a constitutional autocrat. Swedens constitution of 1974 with amendments through 2012. Instrument of government 1809 wikipedia republished. Finland became autonomous grand duchy of russian empire, under direct control of czar alexander i. It was originally established to provide the parliament riksdag with the. He was the eldest son of adolf frederick, king of sweden and queen louise ulrika a sister of king frederick the great of prussia, and a first cousin of empress catherine the great of russia by reason of their common descent from christian august of. The constitution of sweden contains an introduction describing the swedish form of government and how it developed, followed by the law texts in their entirety in english translation, as of 1 january 2015. Jacob sprengtporten, in 1772 had secured sveaborg for gustavus iii. When the ancient swedish land in 1809 was split into two parts. It established once again a division of power between the parliament and the king. To an analysis of the principles and practice of the constitution, and of the nature and functioning of swedish parties, the.
The new constitution of august 20, 1772 which gustav iii imposed upon the riksdag of the estates, converted a weak and disunited republic into a strong but limited monarchy. It shall be realised through a representative and parliamentary polity and through local self government. As another strong contender as the worlds oldest written constitution, the commonwealth of massachusetts drafted and adopted its state constitution in 1780. When sweden was split in 1809, and finland was created as a russian grand duchy, this constitutional autocracy was very well fitted, and remained in force. State papers relating the change of the constitution of. The swedish constitution of 1772, was also a written and codified constitution like those used in connecticut and corsica. From 1814 to 1905 the act of succession also regulated succession to the norwegian throne, due to the union of sweden norway. Gustav iii, king of sweden 177192, who reasserted the royal power over the riksdag parliament. Swedish democracy is founded on the free formation of opinion and on universal and equal suf frage. She cooperated with prince frederick adolf of sweden and gustaf adolf reuterholm. The white ribbon on his arm was the sign to recognice the revolutionaries. Sweden s constitution of 1974 with amendments through 2012 subsequently amended. Between 1720 and 1772 sweden had the most advanced constitution in europe. Swedish act of succession historipedia official wiki.20 1560 1551 416 146 87 820 1144 447 55 664 654 1528 683 999 916 590 640 585 796 1265 883 265 971 216 240 1065 131 999 25 1502 877 637 1459 1076 859 13 1478 1044 1219 517 837 862